Selasa, 20 Oktober 2020

60 SKILLS DEMANDED IN STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION TOEFL TEST

Structure and Written Expression is usually placed in the second session in toefl test. This section contains forty questions (though some tests may be longer). You have twenty-five minutes to accomplish the forty questions in this section. There are two types of questions in the Structure and Written Expression section of the paper TOEFL test:
  1. Structure (questions 1-15) consists of fifteen sentences in which part of each sentence has been replaced with a blank. Each sentence is followed by four answer choices. You must choose the answer that completes the sentence in a grammatically correct way.
  2. Written Expression (questions 16-40) consists of twenty-five sentences in which four words or groups of words have been underlined. You must choose the underlined word or group of words that is not correct
The questions on the paper test are presented in linear order. The fifteen structure questions (1-15) progress from easy to difficult. The twenty-five written expression questions (16-40) also progress from easy to difficult. Your score in this section is based on your answers to these forty questions.

GENERAL STRATEGIES IN STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION
  1. Be familiar with the directions. The directions on every paper TOEFL test are the same, so it is not necessary to spend time reading the directions carefully when you take the test You should be completely familiar with the directions before the day of the test. 
  2. Begin with questions 1 through 15. Anticipate that questions I through 5 will be the easiest. Anticipate that questions 11 through 15 will be the most difficult. Do not spend too There will be easier questions that come later.
  3. Continue with questions 16 through 40. Anticipate that questions 16 through 20 will be the easiest. Anticipate that questions 36 through 40 will be the most difficult. Do not spend too much time on questions 36 through 40.
  4. If you have time, return to questions 11 through 15. You should spend extra time on questions 11 through 15 only after you spend all the time that you want on the easier questions that follow. 
  5. Guess to complete the section before time is up. There is no penalty for guessing, so it can only increase your score to guess the answers to questions that you do not have time to complete.

PROCEDURES FORTHE STRUCTURE QUESTIONS

  1. First, study the sentence. Your purpose is to determine what is needed to complete the sentence correctly. 
  2. Then study each answer based on how well it completes the sentence. Eliminate answers that do not complete the sentence correctly.
  3. Do not try to eliminate incorrect answers by looking only at the answers. The incorrect answers are generally correct by themselves. The incorrect answers are generally incorrect only when used 

Skill 1: BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB

You know that a sentence in English should have a subject and a verb. The most common types of problems that you will encounter in structure questions on the TOEFL test have to do with subjects and verbs: perhaps the sentence is missing either the subject or the verb or both, or perhaps the sentence has an extra subject or verb. 
                    _____was backed up for miles on the freeway.
                    (A) Yesterday
                    (B) In the morning
                    (C) Traffic
                    (D) Cars

Skill 2: BE CAREFUL OF OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS
An object of a preposition is a noun, pronoun, gerund or noun clause that comes after a preposition, such as in, at, of, to, by, behind, on, and so on, to form a prepositional phrase.
                        (After his exams) Tom will take a trip (by boat) .
This sentence contains two objects of prepositions. Exams is the object of the preposition after, and boat is the object of the preposition  by

SKILL 3: BE CAREFUL OF APPOSITIVES
Appositives can cause confusion in structure questions on the TOEFL test because an appositive can be mistaken for the subject of a sentence. An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and has the same meaning
                        Sally, the best student in the class, got an A on the exam.
In this example  Sally is the subject of the sentence and  the best student in the class can easily be recognized as an appositive phrase because of the noun student and because of the com­mas. The sentence says that Sally and  the best student in the class are the same person. Note that if you leave out the appositive phrase, the sentence still makes sense  (Sally got an A on the exam)
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Skill 4: BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT PARTICIPLES
A present participle is the -ing form of the verb (talking, playing). In structure questions on the TOEFL test, a present participle can cause confusion because it can be either a part of the verb or an adjective. It is part of the verb when it is preceded by some form of the verb be (The man is talking to his friend). A present participle is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of the verb be (The man talking to his friend has a beard)

Skill 5: BE CAREFUL OF PAST PARTICIPLES
Past participles can cause confusion in structure questions on the TOEFL test because a past participle can be either an adjective or a part of a verb. The past participle is the form of the verb that appears with have or be. It often ends in -ed, but there are also many irregular past participles in English. The family has purchased a television (purchased=verb). The television purchased yesterday was expensive (purchased=adjective).

Skill 6: USE COORDINATE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY
When you have two clauses in an English sentence, you must connect the two clauses correctly. One way to connect two clauses is to use and, but, or, so, or yet between the clauses.

Skill 7: USE ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY
Sentences with adverb clauses have two basic patterns in English. Study the clauses and ‘ connectors in the following sentences: 
        I  will sign the check before you leave.
        Before you leave, I will sign the check.
In each of these examples, there are two clauses: you leave and I will sign the check, and the clause you leave is an adverb time clause because it is introduced with the connector before. In the first example the connector before comes in the middle of the sentence, and no comma (,) is used. In the second example the connector before comes at the beginning of the sentence. In this pattern, when the connector comes at the beginning of the sentence, a comma (,) is required in the middle of the sentence

Skill 8: USE OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS CORRECTLY

Adverb clauses can express the ideas of dme and cause, as you saw in Skill 7; adverb clauses can also express a number of other ideas, such as contrast, condition, manner, and place. Because these clauses are adverb clauses, they have the same structure as the time and cause clauses in Skill 7.

Skill 9: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY
A noun clause is a clause that functions as a noun; because the noun clause is a noun, it is used in a sentence as either an object of a verb, an object of a preposition, or the subject of the sentence.

Skill 10: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS CORRECTLY

In this Skill , we will see that in some cases a noun clause connector is not just a connector; a noun clause connector can also be the subject of the clause at the same time

Skill 11: USE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY
An adjective clause is a clause that describes a noun. Because the clause is an adjective, it is positioned directly after the noun that it describes.

Skill 12: USE  ADJECTIVE  CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS CORRECTLY

In Skill 12 we will see that in some cases an adjective clause connector is not just a connector; an adjective clause connector can also be the subject of the clause at the same time.

Skill 13: USE REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES CORRECTLY
Adjective clauses can appear in a reduced form. In the reduced form, the adjective clause connector and the be-verb that directly follow it are omitted.

Skill 14: USE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES CORRECTLY

Adverb clauses can also appear in a reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connector remains, but the subject and fo-verb are omitted.

Skill 15: INVERTTHE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH QUESTION WORDS
There is some confusion about when to invert the subject and verb after question words such as what, when, where, why, and how. These words can have two very different functions in a sentence. First, they can introduce a question, and in this case the subject and verb that follow are inverted.

Skill 16: INVERTTHE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH PLACE EXPRESSIONS
After ideas expressing place, the subject and the verb sometimes invert in English. This can happen with single words expressing place, such as here, there, or nowhere.

Skill 17: INVERTTHE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH NEGATIVES
The subject and verb can also be inverted after certain negatives and related expressions. When negative expressions, such as no, not, or never, come at the beginning of a sentence, the subject and verb are inverted.

Skill 18: INVERTTHE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH CONDITIONALS
In certain conditional structures, the subject and verb may also be inverted. This can occur when the helping verb in the conditional clause is had, should, or were, and the conditional connector if is omitted

Skill 19: INVERTTHE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH COMPARISONS
An inverted subject and verb may also occur after a comparison. The inversion of a subject and verb after a comparison is optional, rather than required, and it is a rather formal structure. There have been a number of inverted comparisons on recent TOEFL tests, so you should be familiar with this structure.

Skill 20: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
Sometimes prepositional phrases can come between the subject and the verb. If the object of the preposition is singular and the subject is plural, or if the object of the preposition is plural and the subject is singular, there can be confusion in making the subject and verb agree.

Skill 21: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
A particular agreement problem occurs when the subject is an expression of quantity, such as all, most, or some, followed by the preposition of. In this situation, the subject (all, most, or some) can be singular or plural, depending on what follows the preposition of.

Skill 22: MAKE INVERTED VERBS AGREE
We have seen that sometimes in English the subject comes after the verb. This can occur after question words (Skill 15), after place expressions (Skill 16), after negative expressions (Skill 17), after omitted conditionals (Skill 18), and after some comparisons (Skill 19). When the subject and verb are inverted, it can be difficult to locate them, and it can there­fore be a problem to make them agree.

Skill 23: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER CERTAIN WORDS
Certain words in English are always grammatically singular, even though they might have plural  meanings. Everybody.  the   word such as  anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody, each (+ noun), anyone, everyone no one someone, every (+ noun), anything, everything, nothing, something everybody are singular and requires a singular verb. 

Skill 24: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
The job of the coordinate conjunctions (and, but, or) is to join together equal expressions. In other words, what is on one side of these words must be parallel to what is on the other side. These conjunctions can join nouns, or verbs, or adjectives, or phrases, or subordinate clauses, or main clauses; theyjust must join together two of the same thing.

Skill 25: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS
The paired conjunctions both... and, either... or, neither... nor, and not only... but also require parallel structures.

Skill 26: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH COMPARISONS
When you make a comparison, you point out the similarities or differences between two things, and those similarities or differences must be in parallel form. You can recognize a comparison showing how two things are different from the -er... than or the more... than.

Skill 27: FORM COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES CORRECTLY
The problem with some of the comparative and superlative sentences on the TOEFL test is that the comparative or superlative is formed incorrectly. You should therefore understand how to form the comparative and superlative to answer such questions correctly.

Skill 28: USE COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES CORRECTLY
Another problem with the comparative and superlative on the TOEFL test is that they can be used incorrectly. The comparative and superlative have different uses, and you should understand these different uses to answer such questions correctly. The comparative is used to compare two equal things.

Skill 29: USE THE IRREGULAR -ER, -ER STRUCTURE CORRECTLY
An irregular comparative structure that has been appearing frequently on the TOEFL test consists of two parallel comparatives introduced by the.

Skill 30: AFTER HAVE, USE THE PAST PARTICIPLE
Whenever you see the helping verb have in any of its forms {have, has, having, had), be sure that the verb that follows it is in the past participle form.

Skill 31: AFTER BE, USE THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE ORTHE PAST PARTICIPLE
The verb be in any of its forms (am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being) can be followed by another verb. This verb should be in the present participle or the past participle form.

Skill 32: AFTER WILL, WOULD, OR OTHER MODALS, USE THE BASE FORM OF THE VERB 
Whenever you see a modal, such as will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, or must, you should be sure that the verb that follows it is in its base form.

Skill 33: KNOWWHENTO USETHE PASTWITHTHE PRESENT
One verb tense problem that is common both in student writing and on the TOEFL test is the switch from the past tense to the present tense for no particular reason. Often when a sentence has both a past tense and a present tense, the sentence is incorrect

Skill 34: USE HAVE AND HAD CORRECTLY
Two tenses that are often confused are the present perfect (have+ past participle) and the past perfect (had + past participle). These two tenses have completely different uses, and you should understand how to differentiate them.

Skill 35: USETHE CORRECTTENSE WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS
Often in written expression questions on the TOEFL test there is a time expression that clearly indicates what verb tense is needed in the sentence.

Skill 36: USE THE CORRECT TENSE WITH WILL AND WOULD
Certain combinations of verbs are very common in English. One is the combination of the simple present and will.

I know that they will arrive soon.

It is certain that he will graduate.


 Skill 37: USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE PASSIVE
One way that the passive can be tested on the TOEFL test is simply with an incorrect form of the passive. The following are examples of passive errors that might appear on the TOEFL test:

The portrait was painting* by a famous artist.

The project will finished* by Tim.


Skill 38: RECOGNIZE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MEANINGS
When there is no object (with or without by) after a verb, you must look at the meaning of the sentence to determine if the verb should be active or passive. Sentences with an incor­rect passive verb and no by + object to tell you that the verb should be passive are the most difficult passive errors to recognize on the TOEFL test. Study the examples:

We mailed the package at the post office.

The letter was mailed by us today before noon.

The letter was mailed today before noon.

The letter mailed* today before noon.

Skill 39: USE THE CORRECT SINGULAR OR PLURAL NOUN
A problem that is common in written expression questions on the TOEFL test is a singular noun used where a plural noun is needed, or a plural noun used where a singular noun is needed.

On the table there were many dish*.

The lab assistant finished every tests?\

                                                                            

Skill 40: DISTINGUISH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
In English, nouns are classified as countable or uncountable. For certain questions on the TOEFL test, it is necessary to distinguish countable and uncountable nouns in order to use the correct modifiers with them.

Skill 41: RECOGNIZE IRREGULAR PLURALS OF NOUNS
Many nouns in English have irregular plurals, and these irregular forms can cause confu­sion in written expression questions on the TOEFL test. The irregular forms that are the most problematic are plural forms that do not end in S.

Different criteria was* used to evaluate the performers


Skill 42: DISTINGUISH THE PERSON FROM THE THING
Nouns in English can refer to persons or things. Sometimes in written expression ques­tions on the TOEFL test the person is used in place of the thing, or the thing is used in place of the person.

Ralph Nader is an authorization* in the field of consumer affairs.

There are many job opportunities in accountant*.


Skill 43: DISTINGUISH SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS
Subject and object pronouns can be confused on the TOEFL test, so you should be able to recognize these two types of pronouns: SUBJECT:I, you, he, she, it, we, they”; OBJECT: me, you, him, her, it, us, them

Skill 44: DISTINGUISH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
Possessive adjectives and pronouns both show who or what “owns” a noun. However, pos­sessive adjectives and possessive pronouns do not have the same function, and these two kinds of possessives can be confused on the TOEFL test. A possessive adjective describes a noun: it must be accompanied by a noun. A possessive pronoun takes the place of a noun: it cannot be accompanied by a noun.

They lent me their hook.

ADJECTIVE

They lent me theirs.

PRONOUN


Skill 45: CHECK PRONOUN REFERENCE FOR AGREEMENT
After you have checked that the subject and object pronouns and the possessives are used correctly, you should also check each of these pronouns and possessives for agreement. The following are examples of errors of this type that you might find on the TOEFL test:

The boys will cause trouble if you let him*.

Everyone must give their* name.


Skill 46: USE BASIC ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY
Sometimes in written expression questions on the TOEFL test, adjectives are used in place of adverbs, or adverbs are used in place of adjectives. Adjectives and adverbs have very dif­ferent uses. Adjectives have only one job: they describe nouns or pronouns.

Skill 47: USE ADJECTIVES AFTER LINKING VERBS
Generally an adverb rather than an adjective will come directly after a verb because the adverb is describing the verb.

Skill 48: POSITION ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS CORRECTLY
Adjectives and adverbs can appear in incorrect positions in written expression questions on the TOEFL test. There are two common errors of this type that you should beware of: (1) the position of adjectives with the nouns they describe, and (2) the position of adverbs with objects.

 

Skill 49: RECOGNIZE -LY ADJECTIVES
Generally when a word ends in -ly in English, it is an adverb. However, there are a few words ending in -ly that are adjectives, and these -ly adjectives can cause confusion in writ­ten expression questions on the TOEFL test.

Skill 50: USE PREDICATE ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY
Certain adjectives appear only in the predicate of the sentence; that is, they appear after a linking verb such as be, and they cannot appear directly in front of the nouns that they describe.

The snake on the rock was alive.

The alive* snake was lying on the rock.

Skill 51: USE -ED AND -/NG ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY
Verb forms ending in -ed and -ing can be used as adjectives. For example, the verbal adjec­tives cleaned and cleaning come from the verb to clean

Skill 52: USE ARTICLES WITH SINGULAR NOUNS
You can see from the chart that if a noun is either countable plural or uncountable, it is possible to have either the definite article the or no article (indefinite). With all countable singular nouns, however, you must have an article (unless you have another determiner such as my or each).

 

Skill 53: DISTINGUISH A AND AN
The basic difference between a and an is that a is used in front of consonants and an is used in front of vowels (a, e, i, o, u):

a took       an orange

a man        an illness

a page       an automobile


Skill 54: MAKE ARTICLES AGREE WITH NOUNS
The definite article (the) is used for both singular and plural nouns, so agreement is not a problem with the definite article. However, because the use of the indefinite article is dif­ferent for singular and plural nouns, you must be careful of agreement between the indef­inite article and the noun. One very common agreement error is to use the singular indefinite article (a or an) with a plural noun.

Skill 55: DISTINGUISH SPECIFIC AND GENERAL IDEAS
With countable singular nouns it is possible to use either the definite or the indefinite arti­cle, but they have different meanings. The definite article is used to refer to one specific noun.

Tom will bring the book tomorrow.

(There is one specific book that Tom will bring tomorrow.)

He will arrive on the first Tuesday in July.

(There is only one first Tuesday in July.)

He sailed on the Pacific Ocean.

(There is only one Pacific Ocean.)


Skill 56: RECOGNIZE INCORRECT PREPOSITIONS
Sometimes an incorrect preposition is given in a sentence in written expression questions on the TOEFL test.

The game was called on* because of rain.

I knew I could count in* you to do a good job.


Skill 57: RECOGNIZE WHEN PREPOSITIONS HAVE BEEN OMITTED
Sometimes a necessary preposition has been omitted from a sentence in written expres­sion questions on the TOEFL test.

Can you waif* me after the game?

I plan* attending the meeting.


Skill 58: DISTINGUISH MAKE AND DO
Make and do can be confused in English because their meanings are so similar. Since the difference between make and do is tested on the TOEFL test, you should learn to distin­guish them. Make often has the idea of creating or constructing. The following expressions show some of the possible uses of make:

She likes to make her own clothes.

Would you like to make a cake for dessert?

Do often has the idea of completing or performing. The following expressions show some of the possible uses of do:

This morning she did all the dishes.

The students are doing the assignments


Skill 59: DISTINGUISH LIKE, ALIKE, AND UNLIKE
Like, alike, and unlike are easily confused because they look so similar and they have many different uses. There are several structures with like, alike, and unlike that you should be familiar with. The first structures you should already be familiar with are the adjectives alike and like (see Skill 50). Study the use of alike and like in the following examples.

John and Tom are alike.

John and Tom worked in a like manner.

Skill 60: DISTINGUISH OTHER, ANOTHER, AND OTHERS
Other, another, and others are very easy to confuse. To decide how to use each of them cor­rectly, you must consider three things: (1) if it is singular or plural, (2) if it is definite (the) or indefinite (a, an), and (3) if it is an adjective (it appears with a noun) or if it is a pro­noun (it appears by itself).

 Reference

 Phillips, Deborah. 2001.  Longman Complete Course for the TOEF Test: Preparation for the Computer and Paper Tests


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